# Sets in Python

Contents

**Sets in python**

Sets are another form of representing data in a collected form. However, there is * no proper indexing *to reference data in a set. Therefore we cannot say that a particular data is present at a particular index all the time in a set.

Likewise, lists and Tuples, we can perform * various operations *on Sets. A set can be thus defined as an

*without any proper indexing method.*

**unordered collection of data****Defining Sets in Python**

A Set can be defined by mentioning the values * inside curly braces*. Or instead of that, we can also use the

*to define a set. The syntax of both the formats is as follows:*

**inbuilt set() method**sample_set = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve"}

By using the * inbuilt set() method*, we get:

sample_set = set(["Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve"])

In both cases, it creates a set which has some unordered indices to represent the values.

**Accessing Sets in Python**

A Set can be accessed * like accessing from a normal array*. Since the index isn’t present, the order of accessing the set can vary every time we try and access it.

This can be shown by the following code:

sample_set = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve"} for i in sample_set: print(i)

When we run this code multiple times, we can see that with every time * the order of output changes *irrespective of the order in which the elements are provided to the set.

**Set Operations in Python**

We can perform a large number of operations on a Set individually or by combining it with other ** standard datatypes **like Dictionaries, Lists, and Tuples.

Operations on a Set include * Union*,

*,*

**Intersection***,*

**Set Difference***,*

**Freezing a set***,*

**Addition***,*

**Updation***, etc. We will see the working of all these functions one by one.*

**Deletion****Union of Sets**

It involves the basic idea: we have two sets and we combine the elements of two sets. This is done by * the union() method*.

For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} sample_set_2 = {"Peter", "Stephen", "T'chaka", "Vision", "Bucky"} union_set = sample_set_1.union(sample_set_2) print(union_set)

Note that, even if we have elements in common, they are only considered once during the union of two sets.

**Intersection of Sets**

This is used to find the common elements of a set. It is done by using * the intersection() method*.

For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} sample_set_2 = {"Peter", "Stephen", "T'chaka", "Vision", "Bucky"} union_set = sample_set_1.intersection(sample_set_2) print(union_set)

It shows the common element in the two sets.

**Set Difference**

This is used to subtract the elements from one set and the elements to be subtracted must be present in the second set. It is done by using the * difference() method*.

For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} sample_set_2 = {"Tony", "Bruce"} union_set = sample_set_1.difference(sample_set_2) print(union_set)

**Freezing of Sets**

This is used to lock a set. It means after this we won’t be able to make any kind of modifications in a set.

For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} union_set = frozenset(sample_set_1) print(union_set) union_set.add("Peter")

Here we define another instance of the sample set as a union set. And we declare that set to be a frozen state. When we try to add some new elements, as we have done here, then we will get an error.

**Addition of elements**

This is used to add new elements to the set. This is done by using the * add() method*. For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} sample_set_1.add("Peter") print(sample_set_1)

**Updation of elements**

This is used to add multiple elements into the set in a single instance. This is done by using the update() method. For example:

sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} sample_set_1.update(["Peter","T'chaka", "Sam"]) print(sample_set_1)

**Deletion of elements**

This is used to delete elements from a set. It is done by using the * discard() *or

*or*

**remove()***method. For example:*

**pop()**sample_set_1 = {"Tony", "Bruce", "Peter", "T'chaka", "Sam", "Thor", "Steve", "Bucky"} print(sample_set_1) #Using remove() method sample_set_1.remove("T'chaka") print(sample_set_1) #Using discard() method sample_set_1.discard("Sam") print(sample_set_1) #Using pop() method sample_set_1.pop() print(sample_set_1)

**The Difference**

discard and remove perform the same operation. The only difference is if the element which is to be removed is not found in the set, then * remove() method *throws an error while the

*doesn’t throw an error.*

**discard() method**The * pop() method *removes the last element present at that instance of the set.

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